This focus area covers fundamental knowledge of analog or digital signals, transmission of analog or digital signals (modulation, coding, demodulation), transmitters, receivers, filters, transmission media, mathematical analysis of deterministic and random signals, analog-to-digital conversion, analog/digital communications, antennas, mobile communications & networks, satellite communications, and radar & navigation.
More and more devices are designed to perform without the need of human as their operator. Such systems implement a so-called automatic control. This can be extended to systems with electronic circuitry that precisely and robustly control machines, equipment, and even entire industrial plants.
Topics addressed include the energy conversion and conservation through more efficient electronic systems, intelligent energy management through smart grid approaches, and renewable energy technologies including solar cells (solar PV), wind turbine, and electric or hybrid vehicles.